Health and social care systems are under increasing pressure to respond to demands that could otherwise be handled by citizens and carers themselves. The evidence suggests that many individuals would be willing to do more to participate in their own care if easy-to-use services, such as appointment booking, self-monitoring of health status, and alternatives to medical appointments, were available to them. This means providing services and tools that enable convenience, offer choice, and encourage self-service and engagement in health management, taking into account the need to address the risk of health and social inequalities.
- Citizen empowerment is not considered as part of integrated care provision
- Citizen empowerment is recognised as important part of integrated care provision but effective policies to support citizen empowerment are still in development
- Citizen empowerment is recognised as important part of integrated care provision, effective policies to support citizen empowerment are in place but citizens do not have access to health information and health data
- Citizens are consulted on integrated care services and have access to health information and health data
- Incentives and tools exist to motivate and support citizens to co-create healthcare services and use these services to participate in decision-making process about their own health
- Citizens are fully engaged in decision-making processes about their health, and are included in decision-making on service delivery and policy-making.